Formulasi kalender Hijriah dalam pendekatan historis-astronomis

Budiwati, Anisah (2019) Formulasi kalender Hijriah dalam pendekatan historis-astronomis. PhD thesis, UIN Walisongo.

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Abstract

Tanggal-tanggal peristiwa penting dalam Kalender Hijriah sebagai peristiwa di masa lampau belum memiliki konsep landasan astronomis. Peristiwa Hijrah Nabi dari Mekah ke Madinah yang ditetapkan sebagai awal mula kalender, peristiwa lahirnya Nabi, Nuzūlul Qur’a>n, Isra Mi’raj, Haji Wadā’, dan wafatnya Nabi Muhammad saw ditemukan dalam banyak versi tanggal yang secara astronomis tidak terverifikasi. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini mengungkap kepastian waktu peristiwa-peristiwa tersebut melalui literatur sejarah keislaman yang ada pada nas} maupun buku teks sejarah untuk dapat diformulasikan secara astronomis. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pustaka dengan sumber data literatur keislaman (al-Qur’ān dan Tafsi>rnya, hadiṡ, dan Si>rah Nabawiyyah) serta data pendukung dari ensiklopedia dan buku ilmu falak. Melalui data-data sejarah dengan menggunakan penelitian kualitatif analisis deskriptif kritis dan perhitungan astronomi berupaya menggali sejarah peralihan kalender pra-Islam ke kalender Hijriah dan formulasi astronomis tanggal peristiwa-peristiwa penting pada masa Rasulullah saw yang menjadi hari besar keagamaan Islam. Melalui penelusuran sejarah, analisis h}isab ‘urfi dan empat h}isab kontemporer diperoleh dua kesimpulan, pertama, sistem penanggalan pada masa pra-Islam belum memiliki formulasi yang baku sehingga dengan turunnya Qs. At-Taubah ayat 36 mengembalikan sistem kalender Lunar dan pernyataan khutbah Rasulullah pada saat Haji Wadā’ tahun ke-10 H memberi penegasan bahwa kalender umat muslim adalah kalender lunar murni yang mengacu pada siklus fase Bulan, meskipun rumusannya baru dideklarasikan pada tahun ke-17 H (638 M) yaitu masa kepemimpinan Umar bin Khattab. Kedua, berdasarkan hasil perhitungan h}isab kontemporer (Ephemeris, Accurate Times, Stary Night, dan Stellarium), formulasi kalender Hijriah dalam perspektif historis-astronomis ¬adalah menetapkan konsep kriteria astronomis peristiwa sejarah sebagai identitas Islam yaitu kelahiran Nabi Muhammad saw pada Senin Legi, 14 Rābi’ul Awwal 53 SH (5 Mei 570 M), Nuzūlul Qur’a>n terjadi pada Jum’at Kliwon, 17 Ramad{an 13 SH (22 Agustus 609 M), Isra’ Mi’raj terjadi pada Rabu Kliwon, 27 Rajab 2 SH (24 Februari 621 M), Hijrah Nabi terjadi pada Senin Pahing, 14 Rābi’ul Awwal 0 H (5 Oktober 621 M), awal Muharram terjadi pada Kamis Kliwon, 1 Muharram 1 H (15 Juli 622 M), diperintahkannya ibadah berpuasa pertama kali adalah pada Sabtu Pahing, 2 Sya’ban 2 H (28 Januari 624 M), Haji Wadā’ terjadi pada Jum’at Pahing, 9 Żulh{ijjah 10 H (6 Maret 632 M), dan wafatnya Nabi Muhammad terjadi pada Senin Legi, 14 Rābi’ul Awwal 10 H (8 Juni 632 M). ABSTRACT: The dates of important events in the Hijri Calendar as past events do not yet have the concept of an astronomical foundation. The Prophet's Hijrah events from Mecca to Medina which were set as the beginning of the calendar, the birth of the Prophet, the Nuzūlul Qur’a>n, Isra Mi'raj, Hajj Wadā’, and the death of the Prophet Muhammad were found in many date versions which were not astronomically verified. Therefore, this study reveals the certainty of the time of these events through Islamic historical literature that is in the texts and historical textbooks to be formulated astronomically. This research is a literature research with Islamic literature sources (the Qur’a>n and its interpretations, hadiṡ, and Si>rah Nabawiyyah) as well as supporting data from encyclopedias and astronomy books. Through historical data by using qualitative descriptive critical analysis and astronomical calculations try to explore the history of the transition of pre-Islamic calendar to the Hijri calendar and the formulation of the Hijri calendar through the dates of important events at the time of the Prophet. Through the search of history, the analysis of the reckoning and the four contemporary reckoning has two conclusions. First, Pre-Islamic calendars do not have standard formulations so that the decline of Qs. At-Taubah verse 36 retores the Lunar calendar system and the statement of the Prophet’s sermon at the time of Hajj Wada 10 th year confirms that the Muslim calendar is a pure lunar calendar that refers to the Moon phase cycle, even though the formula was declared in the 17th year H (638 CE), namely the period of Umar bin Khattab. Second, based on the results of contemporary reckoning (Ephemeris, Accurate Times, Stary Night, and Stellarium), the formulation of the Hijri calendar in a historical-astronomical perspective ¬ is to establish the concept of astronomical criteria for important events namely the birth of the Prophet Muhammad took place on Sunday Legi at 14 Rābi'ul Awwal 53 BH (May 5, 571 CE), Nuzūlul Qur’a>n took place on Friday Kliwon, 17 Ramad{an 13 BH (August 22, 609 CE), Isra Mi'raj took place on Wednesday Kliwon, 27 Rajab 1 BH (February 24, 621 CE), Muhammad migration took place on Monday Pahing, 14 Rābi’ul Awwal 0 H (Oktober 4, 621 CE), the beginning of Muharram took place on Thrusday Kliwon, 1 Muharram 1 H (July 15, 622 CE), the commandment of the fasting service for the first time is on Saturday Pahing, 2 Sya'ban 2 H (January 28, 624 CE), Hajj Wadā’ took place on Friday Pahing, 9 Żulh{ijjah 10 H (March 6, 632 CE), and the death of the Prophet Muhammad occurred on Sunday Legi, 14 Rābi'ul Awwal 11 H (June 8, 632 CE).

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Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Contributors:
ContributionContributors (e.g. Thesis Advisor)NIDN/NIDK
Thesis advisorDjamaluddin, ThomasUNSPECIFIED
Thesis advisorIzzuddin, AhmadNIDN2012057203
Uncontrolled Keywords: Kalender Hijriah; Sejarah; Astronomi
Subjects: 200 Religion (Class here Comparative religion) > 290 Other religions > 297 Islam and religions originating in it > 297.2 Islam Doctrinal Theology, Aqaid and Kalam > 297.26 Islam and secular disciplines > 297.265 Islam and natural science (Incl. Islamic Astronomy/Ilmu Falak)
500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 520 Astronomy and allied sciences > 529 Chronology
Divisions: Program Pascasarjana > Program Doktor (S3) > 76003 - Studi Islam (S3)
Depositing User: Miswan Miswan
Date Deposited: 27 Jan 2021 02:32
Last Modified: 27 Jan 2021 02:32
URI: http://eprints.walisongo.ac.id/id/eprint/12113

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