Konversi Agama Masyarakat Samin : Studi Kasus di Kudus, Pati, dan Blora

Rosyid, Moh. (2013) Konversi Agama Masyarakat Samin : Studi Kasus di Kudus, Pati, dan Blora. PhD thesis, IAIN Walisongo.

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Abstract

Disertasi ini mengkaji kehidupan muslim eks-Samin yang semula pemeluk agama Adam. Subyek penelitiannya di Kudus (Desa Larekrejo, Undaan), Pati (Dukuh Bombong, Desa Baturejo, Sukalila), dan Blora (Dukuh Karangpace, Desa Klopoduwur, Banjarejo) dengan pendekatan sosiologi agama dan psikologi agama. Rumusan permasalahannya (1) bagaimana keberagamaan orang Samin?, (2) mengapa terjadi konversi agama pada sebagian orang Samin?, (3) problem dan tantangan apa yang dialami orang Samin pascakonversi agama? Signifikansi disertasi (1) mendeskripsikan keberagamaan warga Samin, (2) memahami faktor terjadinya konversi agama, (3) mendalami problem dan tantangan yang dialami warga Samin pascakonversi agama. Manfaat praktis sebagai informasi bagi publik bahwa warga Samin melakukan konversi agama karena berbagai penyebab, menepis anggapan umum keberagamaannya selalu kokoh. Manfaat teoretisnya mengembangkan kajian islamic studies. Sumber primer disertasi berupa keberagamaan Samin, problem, dan tantangan pelaku konversi, sumber sekunder berupa hasil penelitian tentang Samin dan konversi agama. Teknik perolehan data dengan wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Teori yang digunakan: konsep agama, konversi agama, dan aliran kepercayaan. Keberagamaan orang Samin sebelum masuk Islam berupa melaksanakan tiga dimensi beragama meliputi keyakinan, ibadah, dan perilaku. Faktor konversi agama warga Samin di Kudus (1) tekanan pemerintah desa bidang perkawinan dan sekolah formal, (2) dipandangan negatif/stigma warga non-Samin (tak bertuhan, kumpul kebo, pembangkang), (3) tak teguhnya warga Samin memegangi ajaran leluhurnya karena peran orang tua tak optimal, (4) terbatasnya sumber ekonomi. Faktor konversi agama warga Samin di Pati (1) tekanan Muspida Pati dalam perkawinan, (2) warga Samin tidak memahai ajaran agama Adam secara utuh akibat peran orang tua sebagai guru sejati sudah tidak berperan secara optimal sehingga tak teguh memegangi pesan agama leluhurnya ditambah dengan stigma negatif. Faktor konversi warga Samin di Blora (1) tak adanya regenerasi tokoh Samin, (2) tekanan pemerintahan Blora, (3) terbatasnya lahan ekonomi, dan (4) stigma negatif. Perbedaan faktor tersebut karena karakter warga non-Samin. Problem dan tantangan pascakonversi agama, warga Samin mayoritas tak terbebani ajaran agama barunya, mayoritas tidak memahami ajaran Islam sehingga pasca-konversi tak melaksanakan tuntunan Islam. Esensi agama bagi warga Samin adalah dalam kehidupan bersesama tak merugikan pihak lain. Warga Samin di Blora, agama Adam diyakini dalam batin dan perilaku hidup. Warga Samin Kudus dan Pati pindah agama hanya di kala perkawinan karena dorongan pemerintah desa era Orba dan lingkungannya juga memenuhi kebutuhan untuk kawin, meski pasca-kawin tak taat terhadap ajaran Islam. Warga Samin yang masuk Islam bersifat sesaat karena pascakonversi agama mayoritas tak memiliki problem dan tantangan dalam hal mendalami ajaran agama barunya, tak memiliki beban psikis, dan sumber perekonomiannya tak terpengaruh. Hal ini menguji asumsi dasar bahwa warga Samin yang konversi agama sebagian kecil mengalami problem dan tantangan. Konversi hanyalah strategi adaptif agar perkawinannya terlaksana, meski secara Islam. Warga Samin yang memahami agama Adam dengan baik, tak akan melakukan konversi agama. ABSTRACT This dissertation examines religious life of Muslims who used to observe the religion of Adam. Research subjects of this dissertation are Samin people living in Kudus (Larekrejo village, Undaan), Pati (Bombong hamlet, Baturejo village, Sukalila), and Blora (Karangpace hamlet, Klopoduwur village, Banjarejo) by analysis of the sociology of religion and psychology of religion. Research problems of this dissertation are (1) how is Samin’s religious life? (2) why religious conversion happen among Samin’s community? (3) what are problems and challenges experienced by Samin people after religious conversion? The purpose of this dissertation are (1) describing religious life of Samin community, (2) understanding factors of religious conversion among Samin community, (3) exploring the problems and challenges faced by Samin community after religious conversion. Practical use of this research is providing information to the public that religious conversion among Samin people is due to various reasons, different from public notion that Samin people are always faithful to their ancestor’s religion. This research also develops theoretical study in the field of Islamic studies. The primary sources of this dissertation cover factors, problems, and challenges experienced by converts while the secondary sources are previous researches on Samin community and religious conversion. Data of this research are acquired by interview, observation, documentation and individual experience of the subject. Theories of religion, belief and religious conversion are used in this research. Samin people’s religiosities are manifested in the form of three dimensions of religion: theology, worship and behavior. Several factors of religious conversion among Samin community in Kudus are (1) the pressure from local government, especially related to marriage and education, (2) negative stigma from non-Samin community (as being atheists, cohabiting and dissident), (3) Samin people gradually forgetting their ancestor’s teaching due to the lessening of parents’ role, (4) limited economic resources. Factors of religious conversion among Samin people in Pati are (1) the pressure from regional government (Muspida) relate to marriage in which Islamic marriage are used as a political strategy, (2) the pressure from kaum (Muslim community) since the teaching of agama Adam (the religion of Adam) contradict to Islam. The pressure from santri is commonly in the form of disrespect and stigma, (3) Samin community gradually forgetting their ancestor’s teaching. Meanwhile, some Samin people in Blora convert to other religion because of several factors (1) there is no successor of the leader, (2) the pressure from the government of Blora, (3) the lack of farm field, (4) stigma from non Samin people. The diversity of factors of religious conversion is caused by interrelation between Samin and non-Samin people. After conversion, several problems and challenges are faced by Samin people, such as Samin people do not feel too attached to their new religion. The majority of converts accept Islamic teaching in accordance with the teaching of the religion of Adam. The essence of religion according to Samin community is living together without doing any harm to others. Samin people in Blora express their belief in the religion of Adam through their thought and behavior. Meanwhile, some Samin people in Kudus and Pati convert to Islam only during marriage ceremony because of the pressure from village government and their non Samin neighbors. Some Samin people convert to Islam provisionally and after conversion they do not feel any burden to observe their new religion and have no psychological problem as well. Their economic resources are not affected by religious conversion. This is to test the basic assumption that some Samin people who convert to other religion experience problems and challenges. Meanwhile, devoted Samin people would not convert to other religion.

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Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Kearifan Lokal, Konversi Agama, Masyarakat Samin, Local Wisdom, Religious Conversion, Samin Community
Subjects: 200 Religion (Class here Comparative religion) > 290 Other religions > 297 Islam and religions originating in it > 297.5 Islamic ethics, practice > 297.57 Religious experience, life, practice > 297.574 Conversion of non-Muslim to Islam
Divisions: Program Pascasarjana > Program Doktor (S3)
Depositing User: Miswan Miswan
Date Deposited: 04 Sep 2013 09:14
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2013 09:14
URI: http://eprints.walisongo.ac.id/id/eprint/21

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