Pemikiran Ilmu Falak Kyai Noor Ahmad SS

Jayusman, Jayusman (2013) Pemikiran Ilmu Falak Kyai Noor Ahmad SS. PhD thesis, IAIN Walisongo.

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Abstract

Kyai Noor Ahmad SS berkiprah dalam kajian ilmu Falak di Indonesia semenjak tahun 1970-an. Ia masih mewarisi tradisi keilmuan Falak melakukan pencangkokan kitab-kitab para pendahulunya dalam perhitungan awal bulan Kamariah dan gerhana. Jika dikaji dan telusuri pada keduanya metode mereka relatif seragam dan tidak banyak perbedaan antara metode hisab yang sejenis. Namun apabila ditelusuri lebih jauh pemikiran mereka yang tertuang dalam kitab-kitab yang ditulis dan dari pergulatan di tengah-tengah masyarakat, terdapat pemikiran mereka yang berbeda. Itulah signifikansi mengkaji pemikiran Kyai Noor. Rumusan masalah penelitian ini: bagaimanakah pemikiran penentuan arah kiblat, awal waktu salat, gerhana, dan awal bulan Kamariah Kyai Noor Ahmad SS? dan bagaimanakah posisi Kyai Noor Ahmad SS dalam peta pemikiran ilmu Falak di Indonesia dalam menjawab persoalan penentuan arah kiblat, awal waktu salat, gerhana, dan awal bulan Kamariah? Metode penelitian yang digunakan: Jenis Penelitian ini adalah kualitatif bersifat deskriptif–kualitatif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan teknik dokumentasi dan wawancara. Sumber data primernya adalah kitab, tulisan karya Kyai Noor Ahmad SS dan hasil wawancara sedang sumber data sekundernya adalah tulisan lainnya yang terkait. Analisis data dilakukan secara induktif bersamaan dengan proses pengumpulan dan memperoleh data. Analisis dan penarikan kesimpulan dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode induktif. Temuan penelitian ini, sebagai berikut: 1. Pemikiran ilmu Falak Kyai Noor Ahmad SS: a. Pemikiran kyai Noor tidak mengalami evolusi dalam metode perhitungan awal bulan Kamariah, gerhana, arah kiblat dan awal waktu salat. b. Pemikiran beliau yang termasuk ranah sains dapat dikategorikan menjadi dua, yakni: pemikiran yang masih akurat yakni dalam masalah perhitungan awal waktu salat, arah kiblat, dan yaum raşd al-qiblah global. Dan pemikiran yang sudah expired; tidak akurat yakni pemikiran tentang pengoreksian arah kiblat, perhitungan awal bulan Kamariah dan gerhana, serta koreksian daerah dalam jadwal salat. Pemikiran beliau yang termasuk kategori Fiqh al-Ikhtilāf dalam masalah besaran waktu Imsak, besaran ihtiyat dalam perhitungan awal waktu salat, dan awal waktu salat di daerah dekat Kutub. 2. Posisi Noor Ahmad SS dalam Peta Pemikiran Ilmu Falak: a. Pemikirannya terkait metode perhitungan arah kiblat, awal waktu salat, awal bulan Kamariah, dan gerhananya mengadopsi metode perhitungan dari ahli Falak lainnya. b. Dalam mengungkapkan pendapat, Kyai Noor mengambil jalan tengah jika terjadi ikhtilāf di kalangan ulama Falak seperti dalam ketinggian matahari dan nilai ihtiyat pada perhitungan awal waktu salat serta besaran waktu imsak. Bahkan pendapatnya tentang penentuan awal waktu salat bagi mereka yang berada dekat daerah kutub dan masalah pengoreksian arah kiblat; yang dinilai mengambil pendapat yang ringan atau mudah bagi masyarakat walaupun kontroversial. c. Beliau akomodatif terhadap perkembangan ilmu Falak dan pemanfaatan kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan untuk membantu kegiatan falakiah yang dilakukannya. Terjadi pergeseran pemikirannya tentang metode perhitungan awal bulan Kamariah dan gerhana dari metode hisab Tradisional kepada metode hisab Semi Moderen. Namun beliau tidak mengupdatenya menjadi metode hisab Moderen karena faktor usianya yang sudah tua. Dan beliau berkontribusi dalam perkembangan ilmu Falak, antara lain mempelopori perubahan satuan buruj menjadi derajat dalam metode hisab Tradisional, perhitungan koordinat Ka’bah untuk keperluan perhitungan arah kiblat, serta dalam masalah penetapan awal bulan Kamariah dan gerhana. Kyai Ahmad Noor SS take part in the study of Islamic astronomy in Indonesia since the 1970s. He was influenced by predecessors expert in calculations earlier lunar month and eclipse because he quoted earlier books. the Kyai Noor's method is not much difference with the others hisap methods. However, if explored further thoughts contained in his books and in the midst of society, there are some Kyai Noor's differences ideas . That are the significance of reviewing his thoughts. The research problem: how the rationale used to determine the direction of Qibla, the beginning of prayers time, eclipse, and the beginning of lunar month by Kyai Noor? and how Kyai Noor position in map of Falak science in Indonesia in responding the problem of determining the direction of Qibla, the beginning of prayers time, eclipses, and the beginning of lunar months? The method used in this study: This study is a qualitative type a descriptive-qualitative. Data was collected through interviews and documentation techniques. Primary data are books, paper and Kyai Noor's interview. Secondary data are more related posts. The data were analyzed inductively simultaneously with the data collection process. Analysis and conclusion done using inductive method. The findings of this study: 1. Kyai Ahmad Noor SS thought about Islamic Astronomy: a. Kyai Noor’s method of calculating the beginning of the lunar and eclipse was changed from traditional methods into Semi Modern reckoning. However, these methods is not accurate for now days. Qibla direction calculation method and prayers beginning time using the formula Spherical Trigonometry is still accurate. b. His thought on the field of science were categorized into two, namely: there are still accurate like calculations prayer schedule and yaum raşd global al-qiblah and the expired one, such as correcting the direction of Qibla and local corrections in the prayer schedule. His thought of Fiqh al-ikhtilaf category are about time ruling, ihtiyat the initial calculation times of prayer, and prayer time beginning of the area near the Pole. 2. Kiyai Noor’s position in the Map Falak: a. His method of calculating the direction of Qibla, the beginning times of prayer, early lunar month, and the eclipse was adopted the method of calculation of other falak experts. b. In the debate, Kyai Noor took the middle area in case of controversy among Falak scholars, such as the altitude of the sun and ihtiyat value at the beginning of prayer time calculation and the time of Ruling. Even the determination of the initial opinion about the times of prayer for those who are near the poles and correcting problems qiblah direction; were assessed taking lightly opinion or easier for people despite he was different from common view of Falak experts. c. He was accommodating to the development and utilization of Falak scientific progress to help falakiah activity. A shift in thinking about the beginning of the calculation method and the lunar eclipse of reckoning method Semi Traditional to Modern reckoning. But he did not update it to be the method of reckoning modern because of elder age. And he contributed to the development of Falak science, among others pioneered a degree buruj unit change in the method of traditional reckoning, calculation of the coordinates of the Kaaba for the purposes of calculating the direction of qibla, as well as fixing problems of early month and the lunar eclipse.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Ilmu Falak, Jadwal Waktu Shalat, Arah Kiblat, Awal Bulan Qamariyah, Astronomy, Prayer Times, Qibla Direction
Subjects: 200 Religion (Class here Comparative religion) > 290 Other religions > 297 Islam and religions originating in it > 297.3 Islamic Worship / Ibadah
500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 520 Astronomy and allied sciences
Divisions: Program Pascasarjana > Program Doktor (S3)
Depositing User: Miswan Miswan
Date Deposited: 05 Sep 2013 06:36
Last Modified: 05 Sep 2013 06:36
URI: http://eprints.walisongo.ac.id/id/eprint/24

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